Later edit: Since I arrived in Amsterdam without any knowledge, I think I could do a little sharing about how things work there. First of all, a very important thing would be that if you don’t have a place to sleep and you’re looking for a hostel or something is going to be pretty hard to find one especially if we are talking about weekends. So early booking is the best idea. I personally stayed in a Stayokay hostel and i paid 34 Euros a night.
Then I could talk about transportation. We only used the tram but you can buy a 24h ticket (directly from the tram driver) and you can use any transport form (tram, metro and bus) for 7 Euros. Otherwise, if you want to buy only one ticket, it’s 2.80 Euros and it can be used only for 60 minutes.
Some other good things to know, would be that stayokay hostels (but I think other hostels/hotels too) provide free tours. But in case you want to explore the city on your own and still make it interesting you can rent a bike (details here). Sadly, I didn’t have time to visit any museums or something, but if you are interested you have to know that they are only open till 5 or 6 pm (with some exceptions) and also you can visit Rijksmuseum (Museum of art and history) for free if you are under 19 (if not, you have to pay 12.50 Euros).
And I think that’s all. Is not much, but I only stayed there about 20 hours. :D Anyway, I hope that the information is somehow useful and as for myself I would like to return one day and have a longer stay.